Special Publications

Special Publications consist of unique contributions, usually book length, either single-subject or the proceedings of a symposium or multi-disciplinary project in which the papers reflect a common theme.

Special Publication Number 1

Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Southeastern Fox Squirrels, Sciurus niger
Edited by N. D. Moncrief, J. W. Edwards, and P. A. Tappe

In the 1980s, research on the biology and management of southeastern fox squirrels increased substantially. This increased research activity prompted John W. Edwards and Philip A. Tappe to organize the Southeastern Fox Squirrel Study Group, which met at Clemson University in August 1990 and 1992. Nancy D. Moncrief, VMNH Curator of Mammals, collaborated with them in 1992 to edit this volume and compile the abstracts.

VMNH Special Publication Number 1 is a collection of peer-reviewed manuscripts that provides a comprehensive overview of southeastern fox squirrel biology. The subject areas are diverse, ranging from nomenclature to aging techniques, and reflect the diverse interests of the study group.

Special Publication Number 2

Amphibians and Reptiles of Assateague and Chincoteague Islands
Joseph C. Mitchell and John M. Anderson

Assateague and Chincoteague islands are among the best-known barrier islands off the Atlantic coast of North America. Millions of people visit them every year for recreation. Most visitors are well acquainted with the famous Assateague ponies, but few know that these islands are home to unique assemblages of plants and animals.

This book provides information on some of the islands' most secretive inhabitants, the amphibians and reptiles. Each of the seven species of amphibians and eighteen species of reptiles can be readily identified using the keys, color photographs, and descriptions in this book. Many interesting aspects of their biology are summarized in highly readable form.

Within these pages we discover why the islands are inhabited by far fewer species than are known to occupy the Delmarva mainland. We also learn about measures proposed to insure their long-term conservation, and how to observe these animals in their natural habitats. This book is the only source available that provides a window into the biology and ecology of two fascinating groups of animals on these barrier islands.

Special Publication Number 3

Scale Insects of Northeastern North America
Michael Kosztarab

Scale insects are among the major pest in orchards and nurseries, on trees in parks and forest, and on home garden ornamentals and house plants. Economic losses from scale insects in the United States reach an estimated 500 million dollars annually.

Both adult sexes and immature stages are described for all of the 254 species of this group occurring from Virginia to Newfoundland and west to the Mississippi River, with information on general biology, host plants and parasite/predator species. Four separate indices provide quick access to both the insects and their host plants. Introductory chapters discuss collection and preparation of material for study, and suggestions for control of economically important species.

Special Publication Number 4

Developing Staff Resources for Managing Collections
Edited by Paisley S. Cato, R. Robert Waller, Llyn Sharp, John Simmons, Stephen L. William

Institutions are facing increased pressures to provide services with decreasing resources and increasing accountability. Similarly, pressures and trends both within institutions and society are causing the field of collections management to evolve rapidly. To meet their responsibilities for collections management, institutions must plan strategically for professional development of staff involved in the collection management system.

Recognizing this, the Canadian Museum of Nature and the Virginia Museum of Natural History implemented a project to establish a framework for developing staff resources for collections management. The result of this project as reported in this publication include a clarification of the knowledge and skills required for collection management as well as recommendations to address professional development needs of the institution and its staff.

Special Publication Number 5

The Biology of Tiger Beetles and a Guide to the Species of the South Atlantic States
C. Barry Kinsley and Tom Schultz

Tiger beetles, with their colorful appearance, interesting habits, and amazing diversity, have long attracted the attention of amateur naturalists and professional biologists. In the last 20 years, tiger beetles have become one of the best-studied groups of non-pest insects and are increasingly chosen as indicator species or "poster insects" for efforts to preserve natural habitats.

This richly illustrated book provides a comprehensive review of research on the natural history, systematics, behavior, physiology, ecology, and conservation of tiger beetles. The authors draw upon past and recent studies and their own extensive research experience to provide a synthesis of current knowledge on tiger beetle biology. Moreover, they apply this knowledge to a detailed description of the rich fauna of the south Atlantic coastal states (Delaware to Georgia); a region where tiger beetle populations have been little studied but heavily affected by change.

Accounts of 30 species include descriptions (with color photos), adult and larval habitats, distributions (with maps and county records), and extensive summaries of what is known about the biology of each species. A key to the species is provided as well as methods for collecting, preserving, studying, and caring for both larval and adult tiger beetles.

Special Publication Number 6

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of Tree Squirrels
Edited by Michael A. Steele, Joseph F. Merritt, and David A. Zegers

The comprehensive proceedings of the International Colloquium on the Ecology of Tree Squirrels held at Powdermill Biological Station in 1994.

Special Publication Number 7

Proceedings of the Appalachian Biogeography Symposium
Edited by Ralph P. Eckerlin

25 chapters describing the distribution, ecology, and evolution of plants and animals in the Appalachian mountains. The Symposium was held at Virginia Polytechnic and State University in June, 1995. Building on the foundation provided by a series of symposia convened 1969-1976 on The Distributional History of the Biota of the Southern Appalachians, these contributions provided new knowledge of the flora and fauna of this region as well as new information gained from the recent application of methodologies not included in the previous volumes.

Special Publication Number 8

Checklist of the Millipeds of North and Middle America
Richard Hoffman

Neglected for decades by all but a small number of taxonomists, millipeds are gradually becoming recognized as important members of the soil and litter biotopes around the world. Aside from their role in soil formation, these animals provide exceptionally valuable materials in the study of biogeography and evolution. Since probably less than 20 percent of the actual world fauna has yet been described, basic taxonomy will merit the highest priority for many years to come.

Checklist of the Millipeds of North and Middle America by VMNH curator of Recent Invertebrates Dr. Richard Hoffman, provides a complete summary of 2,167 species considered valid. It not only incorporates the numerous taxonomic innovations of the past 30 years, but presents complete bibliographic information on the nearly equal number of names provisionally considered to be invalid synonyms. Each entry encapsulates data about original description, major subsequent changes in status or affiliation, location of type material, brief statements of distribution, and references to published maps. Those species of still-uncertain status are grouped under specific categories, often with hints concerning their possible identities.

Special Publication Number 10

Identification of Waterfowl Breastbones and Avian Osteology (Sterna) of North American Anseriformes
David W. Oates, Ed D. Boyd, and Jennifer S. Ramaekers

Morphological features of duck breastbones provide a means for identification to genus, and certain measurements and observations may allow for further identification to the species level. In an attempt to identify duck breastbones, observations were made on over 2,300 specimens, of which 1,350 were actually measured and morphological characteristics tables created (Appendix). To assist field and museum personnel, a dichotomus key, along with an identification table, were prepared.

Special Publication Number 11

A Classification and Checklist of the Genus Psudanophthalmus Jeannel (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae)
Thomas C. Barr, Jr.

Predaceous carabid beetles are important elements in the fragile ecosystems of caves worldwide, and provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of post-glacial dispersal and evolution especially in eastern North America where the cave beetle fauna is dominated by species of the endemic genus Pseudanophthalmus. The present treatment provides a comprehensive overview of the 145 species and subspecies considered to be valid, with a new classification recognizing 26 species-groups and a complete listing of relevant taxonomic literature. The annotated checklist emphasizes distribution and relationships, and a concluding appendix summarizes distribution by state and county. This information-packed account by the leading authority on cave beetles will prove essential for speleobiologists as well as coleopterists interested in the family Carabidae.

Special Publication Number 12

A Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America
Charles V. Covell, Jr.

In North America, north of the Mexican border, there are about 765 species of butterflies; this is approximately equal to the number of birds, if we exclude the accidentals. Moths, their nocturnal cousins, outnumber butterflies 14 to 1 with a total of nearly 10,500 known species. Of this galaxy, over 1300 species are treated in this Field Guide, which has been prepared with such loving care and scholarship by Charles V. Covell, Jr.

Special Publication Number 13

The Hispine Beetles of America North of Mexico (Chrysomelidae Cassidinae)
C. L. Staines

A key is presented to the 14 genera and 74 species and subspecies of hispines (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) known to occur in America north of Mexico. Each genus and species is described and illustrated. The known larvae are described and the known biology is summarized. Baliosus ferrugineus from Arizona and Microrhopala inermis from British Columbia, Montana, and Oregon, are described as new. Sumitrosis arnetti Butte is synonymized with S. inaequalis (Weber); Microrhopala rubrolineata signaticollis LeConte, M. rubrolineata militaris Van Dyke, and M. rubrolineata vulnerata Horn are synonymized under M. rubrolineata (Mannerheim). The holotype of Platocthispa lateritia (Smith) has been located making the neotype designation of Staines (1997) invalid. Pentispa morio (Fabricius) is reported from the United States for the first time.

Special Publication Number 14

Geology and Paleontology of the Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina, IV
Edited by Clayton E. Ray, David J. Bohaska, Irina A. Koretsky, Lauck W. Ward, and Lawrence G. Barnes

The Lee Creek series of four volumes describes the spectacular array of fossils found at that site. Lee Creek I illustrates the microfossils; Lee Creek II addresses the larger invertebrates; and Lee Creek III is a study of the lower vertebrates, fish, sharks, and reptiles. Lee Creek IV (VMNH Special Publication 14) is a study by ten different authors of marine and terrestrial mammals found at the site. Included are the whales, porpoises, walruses, seals, and land mammals such as cats, bears, camels, tapirs, horses, and mastodons. This is a massive work consisting of eight chapters with hundreds of illustrations of these vertebrates. One chapter includes an illustrated key to the index invertebrates that enable the age of the vertebrates to be determined. A chart illustrating all of the 12 fossil-bearing strata in the pit in their stratigraphic (age) order is included. No paleontological site on the Atlantic Coastal Plain or east of the Mississippi has received as much study and attention as the Lee Creek Mine near Aurora, North Carolina.

Special Publication Number 15

Bryozoan Studies 2007: Proceedings of the 14th International Bryozoology Association Conference, Boone, North Carolina, July 1-8, 2007
Edited by Steven J. Hageman, Marcus M. Key Jr., and Judith E. Winston

This volume contains thirty-six papers from the presentations at the 14th International Conference of the International Bryozoology Association, held at Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina, July 1-6, 2007. Nestled in a valley in the Blue Ridge Mountains, the picturesque town of Boone has been a center for bryozoan studies for the last 40 years. First Ken McKinney and now Steve Hageman have been paleontology faculty at Appalachian State University (ASU), making Boone a most appropriate (and, for some attendees, exotic) site for an IBA conference. This superb conference was hosted by Steve Hageman and enjoyed by some 70 scientists from 25 different countries. Conference host Steve Hageman thanks, especially, Wendy May and Beth Higley, Office of Conference and Institutes and Lauri Miller, Department of Geology at Appalachian State University for their hard work in ensuring that everything ran smoothly.

Special Publication Number 16

A Lifetime of Contributions to Myriapodology and the Natural History of Virginia: A Festschrift in Honor of Richard L. Hoffman's 80th Birthday
Edited by Steven M. Roble and Joseph C. Mitchell

Richard Hoffman is a native Virginian who has devoted most of his life to the natural history of Virginia and the southern Appalachians, while also earning an international reputation as the leading authority on the world's milliped fauna. He has published 485 scholarly papers and books, and more than 50 popular articles on such diverse taxa as millipeds, amphibians, reptiles, worms, mollusks, arachnids, beetles, and true bugs. He has described more than 600 new taxa and has had nearly 50 taxa named in his honor.

Prior to his retirement on April 1, 2009, Dr. Hoffman served as the Curator of Recent Invertebrates at the Virginia Museum of Natural History for 20 years. In celebration of his 80th birthday and career achievements, numerous colleagues, coworkers, friends, and family participated in a symposium and banquet at the museum on September 22, 2007. This collection of 32 papers from 41 authors on four continents is representative of Hoffman's broad taxonomic interests, and includes species ranging from salamanders, millipeds, centipeds, and crustaceans to insects, plants, and fossil mammals. Descriptions are presented for one new genus and 32 new species, 11 of which are named in honor of Hoffman. Several of these species occupy highly threatened habitats and are potentially threatened with extinction.

Special Publication Number 17

A Species Catalog of the Millipede Family Xystodesmidae (Diplopoda: Polydesmida)
Paul Marek, Tsutomu Tanabe, and Petra Sierwald
Free PDF Download

The Holarctic millipede family Xystodesmidae is composed of 62 genera and 393 species subdivided into three subfamilies and 12 tribes. While the center of known species diversity is in the U.S. Appalachians, the mountains of the western U.S. and East Asia contain the second largest share of known species diversity, and Central America and China hold the greatest undiscovered species diversity. Nonetheless, the Appalachian Mountains and East Asia remain as repositories of numerous undescribed species, and possess a number of poorly known genera awaiting a first revision. Here, we provide the first global species catalog of the Xystodesmidae. The primary goal of this checklist is to synthesize the current alpha-taxonomic information of Xystodesmidae as a foundation for future species discovery, description, and molecular systematics. Xystodesmid millipedes are some of the largest (some reaching 80 mm in length) and most inadequately known macrofauna in North America. With their significance as decomposers in forested ecosystems (particularly in regions with extirpated natural assemblages of earthworms) we know surprisingly little about this fascinating lineage of blind soil-dwelling animals.

Special Publication Number 18

The Geology of Virginia
Edited by Christopher M. Bailey, W. Cullen Sherwood, L. Scott Eaton, David S. Powars

The Virginia Commonwealth encompasses five distinct geologic provinces, and contains a rich variety of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks that range in age from the Proterozoic to the present. Virginia also has a wealth of distinctive landforms and active processes that continue to modify its surface. Few states can match Virginia’s geologic diversity.
Research into Virginia’s geology has been conducted for well over two hundred years. This volume provides a modern overview of Virginia’s geology and updates the geologic community on recent advances made in understanding Virginia’s geologic history.
This volume is intended as a resource for professional geologists, graduate students, and upper-level undergraduates. Geologists unfamiliar with Virginia will be able to use this volume as a primer to the region. The volume brings together, as a coherent package, information that is currently widely dispersed throughout the geologic literature.

Chapters of The Geology of Virginia:

Brief History of Geological Research In Virginia
C. Rick Berquist, Robert C. Whisonant

Paleozoic Sedimentary Successions of the Virginia Valley and Ridge and Plateau
J. Fred Read, Kenneth A. Eriksson

Structural Geometry of the Valley and Ridge and Plateau Provinces
Mark A. Evans, Randall C. Orndorff, William Henika

Geology of the Western Piedmont in Virginia
James P. Hibbard, James S. Beard, William S. Henika, J. Wright Horton, Jr.

Geology of the Eastern Piedmont in Virginia
J. Wright Horton, Jr., Brent E. Owens, Paul C. Hackley, William C. Burton, Paul E. Sacks, James P. Hibbard

Early Mesozoic Geology in Virginia
Joseph P. Smoot

Geology of the Virginia Coastal Plain:
New Insights From Continuous Cores and Geophysical Surveys
David S. Powars, Lucy E. Edwards, Gerald H. Johnson, C. Rick Berquist

Crustal Structure and Seismicity of Virginia
Samuel T. Peavy, John K. Costain, Cahit Çoruh

Landscape Evolution in Virginia
G. Richard Whittecar, Wayne L. Newell, L. Scott Eaton

Soils of Virginia
W. Cullen Sherwood, Frederick M. Garst

Hydrogeology of Virginia
David L. Nelms, George E. Harlow, Jr., T. Scott Bruce

Atlantic Coast and Inner Shelf
David E. Krantz, Carl H. Hobbs, III, Geoffrey L. Wikel

Geologic Hazards of Virginia
L. Scott Eaton, R. Craig Kochel, David A. Hubbard Jr., Fiorella V. Simoni de Cannon, Douglas G. Mose

Non-Fuel Mineral Resources in Virginia
Palmer C. Sweet, William L. Lassetter, W. Cullen Sherwood

James A. Lovett, Karen K. Hostettler

Oil and Gas
Robert C. Milici

Fossil Vertebrates of Virginia
Alton C. Dooley Jr.

W. Cullen Sherwood, Sarah C. Sherwood

Special Publication Number 19

Groundwater Isopods of Virginia (Isopoda: Asellidae And Cirolanidae)
Julian J. Lewis, Salisa L. Lewis, William Orndorff, Zenah Orndorff, Florian Malard, Lara Konecny-Dupré, Nathanaëlle Saclier, Christophe Douady
Free PDF Download

**Hardcopies are available for purchase for $30/ea plus shipping and handling. To inquire about purchasing hardcopy versions, please contact Ben Williams at ben.williams@vmnh.virginia.gov.**

The Commonwealth of Virginia has the most diverse array of aquatic isopods living in groundwater-related habitats of any state in the United States. In Virginia, 44 species occur in karst habitats (caves and springs) of the Appalachian Valley and Ridge Province, and in shallow groundwater habitats of the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province. The majority of this monograph concerns descriptions of new species of the Family Asellidae. A single species of the Cirolanidae, Antrolana lira, inhabits deep phreatic waters in the Great Valley in northern Virginia and adjacent West Virginia. The species was well-described and judged to require no further attention.

Overview of the groundwater isopod fauna of Virginia and adjacent regions indicates that many of the species exist in a highly vulnerable conservation state. Of 53 species discussed herein, our recommended conservation status rankings suggest that 26 are critically imperiled, 15 are imperiled, six are vulnerable, and six are secure. Lirceus usdagalun is a federal endangered species, Antrolana lira is listed as threatened, and Lirceus culveri is under evaluation for listing. Several of the new karst-related species described herein are equally rare: e.g., Lirceus cedrus, L. katarinae, L. zenahae, L. littonensis, L. bisetus, L. stygophilus, or Caecidotea fisherorum. Lirceus holsingeri has been extirpated from the site where it was last seen in 1967. Among the shallow groundwater species, Conasellus washingtoni and C. jeffersoni are extremely rare. Lirceus thermae is the only thermal spring isopod in eastern North America, and L. mackini is the only montane species.

Virginia is an extraordinary place for isopod biodiversity. The only subterranean cirolanid in eastern North America occurs there. More asellids (Lirceus, Caecidotea, and Pseudobaicalasellus species) occur in a 4-county area of karst in the southwestern corner of the state than any comparable area in the United States. Likewise, the Conasellus occurring in the Coastal Plain is the most diverse assemblage of shallow groundwater species in North America. Many zoogeographic questions remain, like the existence of Lirceus appalachius in Virginia, separated from other related species in the Interior Low Plateaus by hundreds of miles.

map of Virginia and surrounding areas

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